Thursday, February 15, 2007

Economic Development

Economic Development буюу Эдийн Засгийн Хөгжил гэж юу вэ? Хэдийгээр яг таг оноод хэлчихсан тодорхойлолт байхгүй боловч онолын хувьд үндэслэлтэй хийгээд ойлгоход маш хялбар нэгэн тодорхойлолтыг Amartya Sen 1999 онд бичсэн “Development as Freedom” номондоо
Development can be seen [...] as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy
хэмээн өгчээ. Үүнийгээ тэрээр цааш нь тайлбарлахдаа
Focusing on human freedoms contrasts with narrower views of development, such as identifying development with the growth of gross national product, or with the rise in personal incomes, or with industrialization, or with technological advance, or with social modernization. Growth of GNP or of individual incomes can, of course, be very important as means to expanding the freedoms enjoyed by the members of the society. But freedoms depend also on other determinants, such as social and economic arrangements (for example, facilities for education and health care) as well as political and civil rights (for example, the liberty to participate in public discussion and scrutiny.) Similarly, industrialization or technological progress or social modernization can substantially contribute to expanding human freedom, but freedom depends on other influences as well. If freedom is what development advances, then there is a major argument for concentrating on that overarching objective, rather than on some particular means, or some specially chosen list of instruments. Viewing development in terms of expanding substantive freedoms directs attention to the ends that make development important, rather than merely to some of the means that, inter alia, play a prominent part in the process
хэмээсэн байна. Мөн түүнчлэн тэрээр хөгжихийн тулд юу хийх талаар өгүүлэхдээ
Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states. Despite unprecented increases in overall opulence, the contemporary world denies elementary freedoms to vast numbers—perhaps even the majority— of people. Sometimes the lack of substantive freedoms relates directly to economic poverty, which robs people of the freedom to satisfy hunger, or to achieve sufficient nutrition, or to obtain remedies for treatable illnesses, or the opportunity to be adequately clothed or sheltered, or to enjoy clean water or sanitary facilities. In other cases, the unfreedom links closely to the lack of public facilities and social care, such as the absence of epidemiological programs, or of organized arrangements for health care or educational facilities, or of effective institutions for the maintenance of local peace and order. In still other cases, the violation of freedom results directly from a denial of political and civil liberties by authoritarian regimes and from imposed restrictions on the freedom to participate in the social, political and economic life of the community...."

Үүнээс гадна EconLib дээр The Economist сэтгүүлийн deputy editor Clive Crook-ийн бичсэн "Third World Economic Development" хэмээх нийтлэл.

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